How to cite references to online resources

The academic world has had trouble knowing how to handle website citations. It is important to remember why citations are given: to allow the reader to find the exact source. Some websites do not list an author on the page from which the quote is taken (just like with books), but tracking back to a "homepage" often reveals bibliographical information (see How to Locate Bibliographical Information). It is also true that webpages usually have no page numbers. But readers can still find the quoted phrase with little effort as long as you give a correct URL. The information that should normally be available to you includes author's name, title of web site, exact URL of the page from which the quote is taken, and sometimes the date of publication.

Your instructor may provide a format for referencing internet materials. If not, you may use the links below to see examples of Notes, Parenthetical citations, and Bibliographical entries according to different manuals of style.
APA
Book

APA website
P (Bowler, 1985, para. 3) ("para." refers to paragraph number)
B Bowler, P. (1985). The superior person's book of words. Boston, MA: David R. Godine. Retrieved April 1, 2003, from http://www.godine.com/books/bowler/superior.htm.
APA
Article
P (Halpern, 2001, 21)
B Halpern, B. (2001). Elisha as an apocalypticist. Journal of Biblical Studies, 106, 17-23. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://www.jbs.org/articles/halpern08559.html.
MLA
Book

MLA website
P (Smith 3 par) ("par" refers to paragraph number)
B Smith, George. Life of William Carey: Shoemaker & Missionary. 1909. Transcribed and ed. Harry Plantinga. August 1999. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 16 September 2002 <http://www.ccel.org/s/smith_geo/carey/carey.htm>. (Note that MLA requires pointed brackets.)
MLA
Article
P (Sohmer 6 par)
B Sohmer, Steve. "12 June 1599: Opening Day at Shakespeare's Globe." Early Modern Literary Studies 3.1 (1997): 46 pars. 26 June 2002 <http://www.shu.ac.uk/emls/03-1/sohmjuli.html>. ("pars" refers to number of paragraphs)
Turabian
Book
N George Smith, Life of William Carey: Shoemaker & Missionary [book on-line] 1909; transcribed and edited by Harry Plantinga (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1999, accessed 16 September 2002); available from http://www.ccel.org/s/smith_geo/carey/carey.htm; Internet.
B Smith, George. Life of William Carey: Shoemaker & Missionary. 1909. Transcribed and edited by Harry Plantinga. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1999; available from http://www.ccel.org/s/smith_geo/carey/carey.htm; accessed 16 September 2002.
Turabian
Article
N Pamela Scalise, "Prisoners of Hope--A Study in the Minor Prophets: Zechariah," Decision, November 2002 [journal on-line]; available from http://www.billygraham.org/article.asp?i=262&s=103; Internet; accessed 3 March 2003.
B Scalise, Pamela. "Prisoners of Hope--A Study in the Minor Prophets: Zechariah." Decision (November 2002). Internet. Available from http://www.billygraham.org/article.asp?i=262&s=103; accessed 14 March 2003.